Piketty o nujni redefiniciji globalizacije

Tudi Thomas Piketty kot glavni razlog Trumpovega vzpona vidi v naraščajoči ekonomski in geografski neenakosti v ZDA skozi zadnjih nekaj destletij in nesposobnosti vlad, da bi na to uspešno odgovorile z ustreznimi socialnimi in industrijskimi politikami. Ker “trumpizacija” (vzpon populizma kot odgovor na naraščajoče neenakosti zaradi globalizacije in pasivne politike) grozi tudi Evropi, je treba v prvi vrsti re-definirati globalizacijo. Piketty pravi, da je treba zaustaviti nadaljnje prostotrgovinske sporazume v obstoječi obliki (zgolj zniževanje trgovinskih ovir in pasivizacija politik) in jih nadomestiti s sporazumi, ki bodo socialno pošteni in vzdržni. To pa pomeni, da bi morali vsi bodoči sporazumi vsebovati tudi ukrepe za zmanjševanje fiskalnega in klimatskega dumpinga, denimo minimalne stopnje obdavčitve dobičkov in ciljne vrednosti zmanjševanja izpustov.

Potreben je nov politični diskurz o globalizaciji, in sicer da socialno pošten in vzdržen razvojni model potrebuje tudi državo – potrebuje javne storitve, javno infrastrukturo, zdravstveni in izobraževalni sistem.

Hm, vse to drži. Vendar pa se bojim, da pot do tega spoznanja in nato implementacije tega v prakso ne bo tako hitra in gladka. V 1930-ih letih je bilo potrebnih 15 let in grozljiva druga svetovna vojna kot posledica vzpona nacionalističnih populistov. Tudi danes nič ne kaže na kak hiter in superpameten konsenz med državami glede teh zadev. Zato bomo najprej priča vzponu nacionalističnih populistov v posameznih državah, protekcionizmu pred globalizacijo in intervencionizmu, morda celo evropski dezintegraciji, preden bo dozorelo spoznanje, da obstajajo boljše poti k bolj enakopravnemu in vzdržnemu razvoju. Srečni bomo lahko, če se bomo v tem procesu učenja izognili globalni vojni.

 

Let it be said at once: Trump’s victory is primarily due to the explosion in economic and geographic inequality in the United States over several decades and the inability of successive governments to deal with this. […] What sealed the deal, though, was the suspicion that the Democrats were too close to Wall Street – and the inability of the Democratic media elite to learn the lessons from the Sanders vote.

The tragedy is that Trump’s program will only strengthen the trend towards inequality. ..

The main lesson for Europe and the world is clear: as a matter of urgency, globalization must be fundamentally re-oriented. The main challenges of our times are the rise in inequality and global warming. We must therefore implement international treaties enabling us to respond to these challenges and to promote a model for fair and sustainable development. …

There should be no more signing of international agreements that reduce customs duties and other commercial barriers without including quantified and binding measures to combat fiscal and climate dumping in those same treaties. For example, there could be common minimum rates of corporation tax and targets for carbon emissions which can be verified and sanctioned. It is no longer possible to negotiate trade treaties for free trade with nothing in exchange. …

It is time to change the political discourse on globalization: trade is a good thing, but fair and sustainable development also demands public services, infrastructure, health and education systems. In turn, these themselves demand fair taxation systems. If we fail to deliver these, Trumpism will prevail.

Vir: Thomas Piketty, The Guardian

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