Tudi Španija je Slovenija – elite in ekstrakcija rent

Pred enim mesecem sem v članku Zakaj bo Slovenija bankrotirala? pisal o institucionalnih razlogih, zakaj je Slovenija padla v to brezno in katere institucionalne spremembe mora izvesti, da se iz njega izvleče. Pravkar sem videl, da je dva tedna nazaj španski El Pais objavil podobno institucionalno analizo tudi za Španijo, v kateri César Molinas predlaga politične spremembe v Španiji – predvsem uvedbo večinskega volilnega sistema.

Poudarki Molinasa glede vzrokov za krizo so podobni mojim, saj oba utemeljujeva vzroke za krizo z institucionalno analizo, ki sta jo v še sveži knjigi predlagala Acemoglu in Robinson (2012). V obeh primerih, španskem in slovenskem, gre za elite, ki so sistem oblikovale tako, da jim zagotavlja ekstrakcijo rent. Seveda pa so specifične razlike med slovenskim in španskim sistemom – španske težave izhajajo iz (dis)kontinuitete s Francovim režimom, naše pa iz (dis)kontinuitete s komunističnim režimom.

Spodaj navajam štiri zanimive odlomke iz Molinasovega članka. Zakaj so španske politične elite odgovorne za nepremičninski balon in zakaj tako besno nasprotujejo prošnji za pomoč s strani EU:

In the following lines I posit that over the last few decades, Spain’s political class has developed its own particular interest above the general interest of the nation, which it sustains through a system of rent-seeking. In this sense it is an extractive elite, to use the term popularized by Acemoglu and Robinson. Spanish politicians are the main culprits of the real estate bubble, of the savings banks collapse, of the renewable energy bubble and of the unnecessary infrastructure bubble. These processes have put Spain in the position of requiring European bailouts, a move which our political class has resisted to the bitter end because it forces them to implement reforms that erode their own particular sphere of interest. A legal reform that enforced a majority voting system would make elected officials accountable to their voters instead of to their party leaders; it would mark a very positive turn for Spanish democracy and it would make the structural reforms easier.

Politične elite so zasedle ne samo vse veje oblasti, od centralnih do regionalnih, pač pa tudi vse regulatorne institucije in jih delegitimizirale:

Additionally, Spain’s political class has colonized areas that are not the preserve of politics, such as the Constitutional Court, the General Council of the Judiciary (the legal watchdog), the Bank of Spain and the CNMV (the market watchdog). Their politicized nature has strangled their independence and deeply delegitimized them, severely deteriorating our political system.

O politizaciji institucij in politični neodgovornosti:

These processes created a political system in which institutions are excessively politicized and where nobody feels responsible for their actions because nobody is held accountable. Nobody within the system questions the rent-seeking that conforms the particular interest of Spain’s political class. This is the background for the real estate bubble and the failure of most savings banks, as well as other “natural disasters” and “acts of God” that our politicians are so good at creating. And they do so not so much out of ignorance or incompetence but because all these acts generate rent.

O naravnem sovraštvu elit do izobraževanja, podjetnišyva in inovacij:

Just as the theory of extractive elites states, Spanish political parties share a great contempt for education, innovation and entrepreneurship, and a deep-seated hostility towards science and research. The loud arguments over the civics education course Educación para la Ciudadanía are in stark contrast with the thick silence regarding the truly relevant problems of our education system. Meanwhile, innovation and entrepreneurship languish in the midst of regulatory deterrents and punitive fiscal measures. And spending on scientific research is viewed as a luxury that politicians cut back savagely on, given half a chance.

Ste opazili? Če ne bi vedeli, da se tekst nanaša na Španijo, bi mislili, da govori o Sloveniji. Tudi tisti del o pregrešno dragi gradnji avtocest. Tudi Španija je očitno Slovenija.

Celoten članek si lahko preberete tukaj. Gre za odlomke iz knjige, ki jo bo, kot piše El Pais, Molinas objavil naslednje leto pod naslovom ¿Qué hacer con España? (Kaj narediti s Španijo?).

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