Lahko samo nasilje in katastrofe zmanjšajo veliko neenakost?

Knjiga “The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century ” zgodovinarja Walterja Scheidla pravi, da ja. Scheidel je naredil zgodovinski pregled evolucije neenakosti, od kamene dobe do danes, in pokazal, da so zgolj nasilje (vojne, revolucije) ali katastrofe (kužne bolezni) bile sposobne skozi zgodovino zdecimirati premoženje bogatih in revnejše približati premožnejšim. V miru pa se je neenakost spet močno povečala.

Catastrophies reduce inequality

Vir: Financial Times

Iz tega seveda sledi logično vprašanje, ali smo danes na civiliziran način – prek povečane progresivne obdavčitve in večje redistribcije – sposobni zmanjšati neenakost ali pa bomo morali počakati na velike socialne nemire (prevrate) in vojne ali pa na naravne katastrofe in izbruhe epidemij? Če pogledate Trumpovo Ameriko, kjer zanikajo pojav globalnega segrevanja in so v posmeh velikemu povečanju neenakosti šli v drastično znižanje obdavčitve za bogate in korporacije, je odgovor na dlani.

Are mass violence and catastrophes the only forces that can seriously decrease economic inequality? To judge by thousands of years of history, the answer is yes. Tracing the global history of inequality from the Stone Age to today, Walter Scheidel shows that inequality never dies peacefully. Inequality declines when carnage and disaster strike and increases when peace and stability return. The Great Leveler is the first book to chart the crucial role of violent shocks in reducing inequality over the full sweep of human history around the world.

Ever since humans began to farm, herd livestock, and pass on their assets to future generations, economic inequality has been a defining feature of civilization. Over thousands of years, only violent events have significantly lessened inequality. The “Four Horsemen” of leveling—mass-mobilization warfare, transformative revolutions, state collapse, and catastrophic plagues—have repeatedly destroyed the fortunes of the rich. Scheidel identifies and examines these processes, from the crises of the earliest civilizations to the cataclysmic world wars and communist revolutions of the twentieth century. Today, the violence that reduced inequality in the past seems to have diminished, and that is a good thing. But it casts serious doubt on the prospects for a more equal future.

An essential contribution to the debate about inequality, The Great Leveler provides important new insights about why inequality is so persistent—and why it is unlikely to decline anytime soon.

Vir: Amazon

3 responses

  1. Seveda obstajajo tudi mirni uspehi zniževanja neenakosti, npr. New Deal, progresivno obdavčevanje nasploh. Res pa je, da je New Dealu sledila svetovna vojna.

    V situaciji kjer smo pa res ne kaže dobro. Naša zadnja možnost je krepitev držav nasproti lastnikom kapitala. Države so edine, ki jih vsaj hipotetično lahko prisilijo v upoštevanje resnih okoljskih standardov. Ter potegnejo vsaj nekaj spodobnih milijard € iz bazena tistih trilijonov €, ki se spretno skrivajo po raznih oazah. Če še tega ne zmoremo, smo dokončno fucked in res lahko samo še čakamo na Scheidlove nasilne levelerje.

  2. Pick your poison:

    1. Svetovna vojna,
    2. globalna pandemija,
    3. socialistična revolucija,
    4. svetovna okoljska katastrofa.

    Nič kaj rožnata izbira…

    Walter Scheidel on Society, Collapse and Equality:

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