Pomen javnih investicij v R&R za spodbujanje inovacij v zasebnem sektorju

John Van Reenen, eden izmed ekonomskih zvezdnikov (prej London School of Economics, zdaj MIT) s kolegoma (Moretti, Steinwender) v novem working paperju razkriva pomen javnih investicij v raziskovalno-razvojno dejavnost (R&R) in njihov pomen za spodbujanje inovacij v zasebnem sektorju. 

Van Reenen in kolegi ugotavljajo, da vsak 1% javnih investicij v R&R letos spodbudi za skoraj 0.5% zasebnih investicij v R&R v naslednjem letu:

In both datasets, we uncover evidence of “crowding in” rather than “crowding out,” as increases in government-funded R&D for an industry or a firm result in significant increases in private sector R&D in that industry or firm. A 10% increase in government-financed R&D generates 4.3% additional privately funded R&D. An analysis of wages and employment suggests that the increase in private R&D expenditure reflects actual increases in R&D employment, not just higher labor costs. […] We also find evidence of international spillovers, as increases in government-funded R&D in a particular industry and country raise private R&D in the same industry in other countries. Finally, we find that increases in private R&D induced by increases in defense R&D result in significant productivity gains.

In kot ugotavlja Bill Janeway v knjigi “Doing Capitalism in the Innovation Economy: Markets, Speculation and the State, vlada z izdatki za R&R ne samo deli tveganja z zasebnim sektorjem, pač pa jih nosi. Namreč, za razliko od zasebnega sektorja, vladni motiv ni ustvarjanje dobička z vlaganji v R&R in se zato ne boji tveganj. Ali drugače rečeno, vloga države je ključna, ker s financiranjem temeljnih raziskav financira razvoj novih spoznanj, inovacij in tehnologij, ki se jih zasebni sektor zaradi njihove tveganosti in nepredvidljive možnosti uspešne komercializacije ne bi nikoli lotil. Jih pa posvoji in komercializira takoj, ko se izkažejo kot uspešne. In še drugače rečeno, dobičkov vseh teh gromozanskih tehnoloških podjetij ne bi bilo, če jim ne bi države prej prek javno financiranih raziskav ustvarile ključnih odkritij in tehnollogij.

For, contrary to the central dogma of neoclassical economics, efficiency is not the virtue of a market economy whose growth is a function of the creative destruction identified by Joseph Schumpeter as the engine of economic development. The prime virtue is the ability to tolerate unavoidable waste in the evolution of the Innovation Economy. So the state has become central to the Innovation Economy’s dynamics, both to fund the upstream research that generates discovery and invention, and to preserve continuity in the market economy when the speculative bubble that has funded its transformation bursts.

Vir: Bill Janeway, “Doing Capitalism

One response

  1. Pa ne samo R&D, isto , ali pa še v večji meri to velja za investicije v infrastrukturo.

    Kar pomeni, na primer:

    ….računati smiselnost vlaganj v 2.tir na osnovi povečanja prihodkov SŽ zaradi večjega prometa je bedarija prve vrste. Gre predvsem za sekundarne efekte, tam je ves smisel.

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