Kako je Estonija postala vodilna v tehnologiji?

Economist ugotavlja, da je Estonija v dveh desetletjih po neodvisnosti postala vodilna v Evropi po uporabi tehnologije v vsakdanjem življenju – od bančnega poslovanja, vlaganja e-dohodninskih napovedi, plačevanja prek mobilnih telefonov, do e-volitev in in e-vlade. In več kot to, estonski računalničarji so napisali kodo za Skype in Kazaa ter mnoge druge spletne aplikacije. Estonija ima najbolj preprosto in prijazno poslovno okolje v Evropi, zato tam nastaja daleč največ startupov (novih podjetij) na prebivalca. Je pa seveda res, da ima Estonija res tržno in odprto gospodarstvo, ki – brez milosti – niha v eno ali drugo smer. V dobrih časih raste po dvomestnih cifrah, v slabih časih pa prav tako uplahne v dvomestnih cifrah. Povsem neprimerno in nezaželeno za slovenske razmere, kjer si želimo predvsem stabilnosti. Seveda gre to na škodo razvoja.

When Estonia regained its independence in 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, less than half its population had a telephone line and its only independent link to the outside world was a Finnish mobile phone concealed in the foreign minister’s garden. Two decades later, it is a world leader in technology. Estonian geeks developed the code behind Skype and Kazaa (an early file-sharing network). In 2007 it became the first country to allow online voting in a general election. It has among the world’s zippiest broadband speeds and holds the record for start-ups per person. Its 1.3m citizens pay for parking spaces with their mobile phones and have their health records stored in the digital cloud. Filing an annual tax return online, as 95% of Estonians do, takes about five minutes. How did the smallest Baltic state develop such a strong tech culture?

How can other countries—that lack Estonia’s small size and its clean sheet—follow its example? “It’s sort of obnoxious to say, ‘Do what we did’,” says Mr Ilves. But he submits that Estonia’s success is not so much about ditching legacy technology as it is about shedding “legacy thinking”. Replicating a paper-based tax-filing procedure on a computer, for instance, is no good; having such forms pre-filled so that the taxpayer has only to check the calculations has made the system a success. Education is important, too: last year, in a public-private partnership, a programme called ProgeTiiger (“Programming Tiger”) was announced, to teach five-year-olds the basics of coding. “In the 80s every boy in high-school wanted to be a rock star,” says Mr Hinrikus. “Now everybody in high-school wants to be an entrepreneur.”

Vir: The Economist

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