Iluzija koristi eksperimenta s ciljanimi študijskimi voučerji v Čilu

Čile je gospodarsko najbolj dinamična država Južne Amerike, čeprav je za mnoge odprto vprašanje ali zaradi ultraliberalnih “friedmanovskih” reform ali zaradi izvoza surovin ob rastočem globalnem povpraševanju (polovico izvoza predstavlja izvoz bakra). Hkrati ima Čile eno največjih stopenj neenakosti v Južni Ameriki ter večinoma privatno visoko šolstvo, ki temelji na Friedmanovih študijskih voučerjih. Problem je, ker v tem sistemu mnogi mladi iz revnih družin izvisijo, zato je leta 2008 čilska vlada ta sistem reformirala in za polovico povečala vrednost voučerja za študente iz revnih družin. To naj bi v teoriji spodbudilo šole, da bodo takšnim študentom dale večjo pozornost. V novem paperju Feigenberg, Rivkin & Yan (2017) ugotavljajo, da prve ocene o uspešnosti reformiranega voučerskega programa ne držijo, pač pa imajo glavne “zasluge” za uspeh depriviligeranih študentov izobrazba in dohodek staršev.

In 2008, Chile implemented a targeted voucher program that increased voucher values for disadvantaged students at participating schools by approximately 50%. Although disadvantaged students made substantial fourth grade test score gains that other studies have attributed to the program, our analysis raises serious doubts that the program had a substantial effect on cognitive skills. First, there was only a minor reduction in class size and little evidence of increases in any inputs. An audit showed that many schools were not using additional revenues for permitted expenditures, and estimates that exploit a discontinuity in the revenues allocated to schools show no evidence of positive effects of allocated funds on achievement growth. In addition, there is limited evidence of competitive or incentive effects on school quality or that disadvantaged students transitioned to higher quality schools. The much smaller gains made by disadvantaged students in low-stakes eighth grade test scores along with an increased rate of missing scores on fourth grade tests is consistent with extensive strategic behavior by schools. In contrast, increases in parental education and income among disadvantaged children indicate a primary role for improvements in family circumstances of tested students in explaining the meaningful decline in the achievement gap.

Vir: Feigenberg, Rivkin & Yan, Illusory Gains from Chile’s Targeted School Voucher Experiment, Februar 2017

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