Dopolnilo #1: Polarizacija na trgu dela

Za lažje razumevanje komentarja Sindikati – stražarji pekla ali nebes? – pregled empiričnih študij in naša študija (Damijan, Kostevc & Lindič, 2015) o tem, kaj se dogaja na trgu dela v zadnjih desetletjih v EU. Tudi v EU prihaja do tipične U-oblike sprememb na trgu dela. Glavne razloge za to evolucijo pa najdemo na eni strani predvsem v povečanih vlaganjih v R&R in inovacijah, na drugi strani pa v globalizaciji (povečanem uvozu proizvodov nizke in srednje tehnologije iz Kitajske) in offshoringu (relokaciji proizvodnje bodisi v državo ali v druge države). Glej spodaj glavne ugotovitve študije.

Polarization

Main findings:

  • First, innovation and R&D expenditures contribute to polarization in the higher end of the wage spectrum,
    • but less so at the lower end.
    • however, both became more important during the recent crisis period
  • Second, general imports seem to accelerate polarization at the lower end of the wage spectrum,
    • while imports of Chinese low-tech products dampen these effects by reducing employment of the lowest-paying occupations.
  • Finally, inward FDI seem to foster polarization by increasing demand for labor at both sides of the wage spectrum,
    • while relocation of production abroad via outward FDI moderates these polarization effects by reducing the demand for labor.
    • these effects are aggravated during the crisis.
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