Tisti, ki romantizirajo “krasne aranžmaje” fleksibilnih del brez fiksnih pogodb in brez polnih stroškov socialnih prispevkov, bodisi nimajo pojma, o čem govorijo, ali pa zavestno manipulirajo. Študije kažejo, da bi prekarno “zaposleni” raje stalne službe in so se pripravljeni odpovedati precejšnjemu delu plače za stalno službo.
Zadnja eksperimentalna študija Datte (2019) med 4,000 prekarno “zaposlenimi” v ZDA in V. Britaniji je pokazala, da bi se ti odpovedali polovici plače za stalno službo oziroma več kot tretjini plače za vsaj enoletno pogodbo. Ključni problem fleksibilnih delovnih aranžmajev je ogromna negotovost, ki jih ti prinašajo “zaposlenim”, saj ne vedo, ali in kakšno povpraševanje bo po njihovem delu v bodoče in ne morejo ničesar resnega načrtovati. Ne družine in ne formiranja doma (nakupa nepremičnine). Krasni novi svet popolne negotovosti.
Več ugotovitev študije Datte je spodaj.
My results suggest that on average, workers in both the UK and the US far prefer job characteristics associated with traditional employer–employee relationships. Workers are willing to give up approximately 50% of their hourly wage for a permanent contract and around 35% of their hourly wage for a one-year contract, in comparison to a one-month contract.
There are important institutional differences between the UK and the US when it comes to permanent contracts. In the US, only around 34% of employment relationship are afforded some type of ‘just cause’ protection in their contracts, whereas in the UK, permanent contracts by law offer benefits including mandatory notice periods, redundancy pay rights and unfair dismissal protection. Despite this fact, the valuations of a permanent contract are very similar between the two countries (55.4% of an hourly wage in the UK versus 44.1% in the US).
After contract length, holiday pay and sick pay (described as 28 days paid annual leave and 16 weeks paid occupational sick leave) are the most valued job characteristics, with UK-based workers willing to give up approximately 35% of their hourly wage for holiday and sick pay.
In the US, the figure is marginally lower at 27%. This is surprising given that employees there currently face no federal legislation on either, 23% receive no voluntary paid leave, and the average US employee only receives 14 paid days holiday per year. These results suggest that the majority of US workers may have a strong taste for UK-style labour market policies.
Workers do value characteristics associated with atypical work arrangements, although on average far less than security. I find that workers are willing to give up on average 24% of their hourly wage for location flexibility, 14% for hour flexibility and 11% for workplace autonomy (the ability to choose the tasks they perform).
Surprisingly, neither US nor UK respondents are willing to give up any wages to be able to declare taxes as self-employed – in the UK, respondents actually want to be paid to take on this job characteristic. This holds even for just those who are self-employed and would have better knowledge of the value of the attribute. This finding suggests that declaring taxes as self-employed is seen as potentially time costly.
Heterogeneity analysis reveals that, at the mean, respondents in atypical work have a comparatively greater valuation for atypical job attributes, suggesting that individuals sort into types of work based on their preferences. Despite this fact, atypical workers still value job security more than any other attribute. Distributional analysis suggests that in the UK, over 50% of self-employed individuals would prefer to be in a traditional, permanent 9am-5pm work arrangement.
Vir: Nikhil Datta, Naked capitalism