Vzpon Trumpa in Johnsona kot napaka političnih oponentov in političnega sistema

Jeffrey Sachs ima dober point glede vzpona Trumpa in Johnsona v “najstarejših in večnih” demokratičnih državah. Oba sta se povzpela na oblast kljub nasprotovanju večine prebivalstva in kljub temu, da s svojimi potezami in ukrepi neposredno škodita lastni volilni bazi. Sachs vidi oboje kot posledico dveh stvari. Najprej gre za napako političnih oponentov (demokratov in laburistov), ki so se v preteklosti premaknili preveč na desno (v neoliberalno oziroma smer interesov kapitala), zanemarili interese svoje baze, ki je skozi globalizacijo in deindustrializacijo izgubila ekonomska tla pood nogami in posledično migrirala v podporo desnemu političnemu kampu, ki je ponudil zgolj poceni populizem z razpihovanjem rasnih (protiimigrantskih) stališč. Druga napaka pša je v  političnem sistemu – v večinskem sistemu, ki omogoča, da relativni zmagovalec pobere vse, posledično pa lahko vlada zgolj ena oseba po diktatorskih načelih, pa čeprav ima minimalno podporo. V proporcionalnem sistemu se to težko zgodi.

Obe (naj rečem “nekdanji”?) demokraciji zato čaka težka naloga. Najprej, da se levosredinska politična opciji osvobodi (finančnega) oklepa kapitala in nato da ustrezno spremenita politični sistem v smeri proporcionalne zastopanosti. Prvo bo težko (glejte, kako malo denarja za kampanjo uspeva zbrati Sandersu in Warrenovi z zbiranjem denarja od majhnih podpornikov), drugo meji na znanstveno fantastiko. Ni pa nemogoče. Vendar predpostavlja, zmago leve sredine, ki lahko z dovoljšnjo večino izvede potrebne spremembe v političnem sistemu.

The obvious answer is that both Trump and Johnson won support among older voters who have felt left behind in recent decades. Trump appeals especially to older white male conservatives displaced by trade and technology, and, in the view of some, by America’s movements for civil rights, women’s rights, and sexual rights. Johnson appeals to older voters hit hard by deindustrialization and to those who pine for Britain’s glory days of global power.

Yet this is not a sufficient explanation. The rise of Trump and Johnson also reflects a deeper political failure. The parties that opposed them, the Democrats and Labour respectively, failed to address the needs of workers displaced by globalization, who then migrated to the right. Yet Trump and Johnson pursue policies – tax cuts for the rich in the US, a no-deal Brexit in the UK – that run counter to the interests of their base.

The common political flaw lies in the mechanics of political representation, notably both countries’ first-past-the-post voting systems. Electing representatives by a simple plurality in single-member districts has fostered the emergence of two dominant parties in both countries, rather than the multiplicity of parties elected in the proportional representation systems of Western Europe. The two-party system, which then leads to a winner-take-all politics, fails to represent voter interests as well as coalition governments, which must negotiate and formulate policies that are acceptable to two or more parties.

Vir: Jeffrey Sachs, Project Syndicate

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